Safety of Journalists > Resources > Key Texts > ​Major Legal Instruments Related to Protection of Journalists

​Major Legal Instruments Related to Protection of Journalists

15 September 2014

1. International Human Rights Instruments

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

General comment 34 on the article 19 of the above ICCPR (2011)

UNHCR 2005 -Human Rights Resolution 2005/81: Impunity

UN Security Council Resolution 2222 (2015)

UN Security Council 2006 -Resolution S/RES/1738

UN Security Council 2012 -Report of the Secretary-General on the protection of civilians in armed conflict

Human Rights Council Resolution (A/HRC/RES/21/12) on the Safety of Journalists

UNGA Resolution (A/RES/68/163) on Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity

2. Regional Human Rights Instruments

African Charter on Human and People's Rights for Africa (1981, in force since 1986)

American Convention on Human Rights for the America (1969, in force since 1978)

European Convention on Human Rights for Europe (1950, in force since 1953)

Arab Charter on Human Rights (1994)

3. International Humanitarian Law Applicable to the Protection of Journalists

The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their additional protocols

4. Specific Declarations and Resolutions on the Protection of Journalists

UNESCO Resolution 29 on the Condemnation of Violence against Journalists (1997)

UNESCO's Belgrade Declaration on Media in Conflicts Areas in Countries in Transition (2004)

UNESCO's Medellin Declaration Securing the Safety of Journalists and Combatting Impunity (2007)

UNESCO's Carthago Declaration on press freedom and the Safety of Journalists (2012)

IPDC Decision on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity (2008)

IPDC Decision on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity (2010)

IPDC Decision on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity (2012)

ICRC 31st International Conference's Resolution 2 on 4-Year Action Plan (2011)

Human Rights Council -UN General Assembly, Resolution on the safety of Journalists (2012)

WSIS+10 Final Statement (2013) and the WSIS+10 High Level Outcome Documents (2014)

Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists and Other Media Actors (adopted by the Committee of Ministers 30 April 2014)

EU Human Rights Guidelines on Freedom of Expression Online and Offline (adopted 12 May 2014)

Sources: UNESCO, OHCHR, ICRC